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List of words which may be helpful while reading:
entrepreneur – предприниматель

entrepreneurship – предпринимательство

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – Налоговое управление США

Treasury Department (TD) – Министерство финансов США

sole proprietorship – единоличное владение

partnership – товарищество, партнерство

self-employed – работающий не по найму, на себя

assets – активы

to pool – объединять в общий фонд

exempt from – освобожденный от

binding – обязательный

fiscal – финансовый

liabilities – денежные обязательства

bond – облигация

principal – основная сумма

face value – номинальная стоимость

tax deductible – необлагаемый налогом

common stock – обычные акции

preferred stock – привилегированные акции

borrower – заёмщик

lender – кредитор

to issue – выпускать (акции, облигации ...)

legal standing – юридический статус

limited liabilities – ограниченная ответственность

to go bankrupt – обанкротиться

entity – самостоятельная правовая единица

chief executive officer (CEO) – главный исполнительный директор

executive – руководитель, администратор

annual – ежегодный to break up – расформировывать

breakup – расформирование

antitrust laws – антитрестовские законы

rival – соперник, конкурент

welfare – благосостояние

joint venture - совместное предприятие

to diversify - вкладывать капитал в различные предприятия

diversification - вложение денег в различные виды ценных бумаг

merger - поглощение, слияние

takeover- присоединение, взятие под свой контроль

articles of partnership -устав товарищества

equity - капитал

franchising - франшизинг

Small Business Administration (SBA) -Управление мелкого бизнеса США

consortium - консорциум, ассоциация независимых компаний

to divest - отторгать, отделять

divestiture - отделение, отторжение

to deplete - истощать, исчерпывать

lore - профессиональные знания

provision - условие; постановление

to offset - компенсировать

inventory - товарно-материальные запасы

to inhibit - препятствовать

chain-stores - сеть розничных магазинов цепного подчинения

brand name - фабричная марка, название марки

maturity - наступление срок платежа

heir - наследник

block - пакет цените бумаг

proxy - доверенность на право голосования

enforcement - принуждение

to reap - пожинать плоды

to collude - тайно сговариваться

to sue for - преследовать судебным порядком за

to administer - осуществлять руководство


Text Section

Exercise 1. Here is the list of words and word combinations you are to come across in Text 1. On the basis of this list try to predict some topics discussed in Text 1.




1) in American history

2) economic opportunity

3) to overcome greet hardships

4) a farmer

5) a small merchant

6) independent

7) an entrepreneur

8) being in business for oneself

9) to purchase land

10) giant corporations

11) sole proprietorships

12) partnerships

13) employed in small business

14) to create new jobs

15) self-employed businesses

16) Small Business Administration



Exercise 2. Read Text 1 and say if you were right or wrong in your prediction. Give a title to the text.



Text 1

A dominant theme in American history is the importance of economic opportunity for the Individual. In the 17th and 18th centuries this took the form of public admiration of the pioneer, the individual or family that overcame great hardships to carve a home out of the wilderness. Combining all the moral qualities of the sturdy yeoman, the pioneer typically enjoyed the wide open spaces found in the vast American heartland. It is reported that Daniel Boone, legendary as an early American frontiersman, claimed that when he could see smoke from his neighbor's chimney, it was time for him to move farther west.

In 19th- and 20th- century America, the economic individualist was envisioned in rural settings as a homesteading farmer. As a city dweller, he was seen as a small merchant, independent craftsman or self-reliant professional.

But just what does entrepreneurship – the formation of independent business - mean in the United States?

The American frontier fostered the notion that "everybody is an entrepreneur," or that everybody has the right to try his hand. On the frontier, families could homestead their land, take it simply through "squatters’ right", or purchase it on credit and make payment over many years. Its huge expanse permitted the United States to become a nation of agricultural entrepreneurs. The dream of "being in business for oneself" evolved as the nation shifted from rural to urban and from farming to other types of business.

For many people, entrepreneurship retains the significance that 19th- and 20th- century Americans attached to "having a store," "being a plumber," or "having a medical practice." Tales of door-to-door peddlers becoming successful merchants are common in many U.S. families.

Many visitors from abroad are surprised to discover that the U.S. economy is by no meant one dominated by giant corporations. The Internal Revenue Service, the tax-collecting agency of the federal Treasury Department, reported that in 1999 there were 16.956 million nonfarm sole proprietorships, 1.654 million partnerships and 4.631 million corporations in the United States - a total of 23.241 million firms. The vast majority of these were small, having business receipts under $100,000 a year.

There are various ways of defining small and medium businesses, but according to the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), if a small business is defined as one employing fewer than 500 persons, then there are roughly as many people employed in small businesses in the United States as there are in large ones. (If small business is defined more narrowly, as employing fewer than 100 employees, about 36 percent of all workers are employed in small business.) Furthermore, small businesses (employing fewer than 500 employees) accounted for 60 percent of all new jobs created in the years between 1976 and 1988, according to the SBA. During the decade of the 1980s, there was a net growth of 7 million new businesses in the United States, about half of which were self-employed businesses. Self-employed businesses are famous for being able to respond almost instantly to changes in demand; for example, the SBA notes that the number of self-employed part-timers "took off like a rocket" in the 1970S, partly as a result of the energy crisis which caused large numbers of Americans to get into such sideline activities as cutting up trees in rural areas to sell as firewood in cities.

A notable trend of recent years has been the increase in numbers of women in small business activities. According to the SBA, the number of women-owned sole proprietorships more than doubled over the 1977-87 period, from 1.9 million to 4.4 million.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions based on the text:
1. What were the forms of individualist economic activity in the United States?

2. How do many people understand entrepreneurship?

How do you understand it?

3. What forms of business are typical of the U.S. nowadays?

4. How is small business defined?

5. What is the part of small business in U.S.?

6. What are small businesses famous for?

7. What is a notable trend in small business?

8. What form of business is the most abundant in the U.S.?

Prove using the figures from the text.

9. Can we say that U.S is a country of giant corporations?

Exercise 4. Look through the text and find English equivalents for the following:
преодолевать большие трудности; покупать в кредит; осуществлять платежи, доходы от предпринимательской деятельности; чистый прирост; единоличные владения; находящиеся в собственности женщин, создавать рабочие места.


Text 2



The Sole Proprietor
Many businesses are sole proprietorships, firms owned and operated by a single person. When a person decides to open an independent business, that person is then entirely responsible for its success or failure. Any profits go to the owner; any losses are his or her responsibility as well. If the losses rove to be greater than the investment, the individual is responsible for paying them, even if this depletes all personal assets.

One of the advantages of a sole proprietorship is that an owner can make decisions quickly and decisively without having to consult others. And an individual proprietor, by law, pays fewer taxes and at a lower rate than does a corporation.

There are disadvantages to this form of business organization, however. A sole proprietorship ends with the incapacity or death of the owner. The assets can be inherited by a person who may then become the operator, but legally the business dies with its owner. Also, since it is dependent upon the amount of money the owner has saved or can borrow, usually it does not develop into a large-scale enterprise.

In sprite of its limitations, the sole proprietorship is well adapted to many kinds of small business and suits the temperament of many persons who like to exercise initiative and be their own bosses. Some economic contributions of small business are: A small business is often the starting point for developing a new product or service. One person tries out an idea. If it is successful, the business grows, or the product may be bought by a large firm.

The Small business can give an individual a chance to gain experience, which the person may use later on a larger scale. Small businesses are particularly well suited for meeting specialized local needs.

Artisans can provide individualized products for customers who have grown weary of mass-produced goods.

Small businesses provide a service where knowing one’s customer is important.

8ole proprietors are reassuring to customers who believe an individual who is accountable will do a good Job.

Small businesses often grow into large ones, adding to the economic vitality of the nation. Small business advocates content that 55 percent of American technical innovation comes from small- and medium-size businesses. Certainly, many of the creative innovators in the American computer industry, including those who built success,-full companies in what is now known as Silicon Valley, California, started out as "tinkerers" working on hand-assembled machines in their garages. They have become part of American business lore. By any measurement, small businesses are an important pert of the ferment, the creativity, and the competition that, provide new strength to the American economy.

Of course, it is true that small businesses often fall. But in the United States "failure" of a small business venture does not carry with it the social stigma or opprobrium for the failed entrepreneur that it does in some countries. Often, failure of a small business venture turns out to be a valuable learning experience for the entrepreneur, who may be more successful the second or third time. Unsuccessful attempts to start a business become part of the larger process of sorting out the market and making it more efficient, according to small business experts.


Exercise 5. Answer the following questions based on the text:
1. What is a sole proprietorship?

2. What are advantages of a sole proprietorship?

3. What are disadvantages of a sole proprietorship?

4. Name the economic contributions of small business which seem the

most important to you?

5. Do you agree that small businesses provide new strength to the

American economy? Prove your point of view.

6. Can one say that unsuccessful attempts to start a business is a failure

in all senses?

Exercise 6. Look through the text and give English equivalents for the following:

по более низким расценкам; прекращать свое существование с установлением неправоспособности или со смертью владельца; активы могут быть наследованы; перерастать в крупное предприятие; хорошо приспосабливается ко многим видам мелкого бизнеса; проявлять инициативу; устать от товаров массового производства; технические новинки.


Exercise 7. Fill in the following table:


Sole Proprietorship

advantages

disadvantages

  1. all profits go to owner












1.

2.


3.

4.


5.


Exercise 8. Divide into supporters and opponents of a sole proprietorship. Speak for or against this form of business organization. Give your reasons.
Exercise 9. Render the following passage in English:

Частное предприятие
Частное (хозяйское, семейное) предприятие – исторически наиболее "древняя форма" предприятия. Количественно она и сейчас остается абсолютно доминирующей. Достаточно сказать, что в США более десяти миллионов "хозяйских" предприятий. В каждой из главных европейских капиталистических стран "(Германии, Франции, Великобритании, Италии) число таких фирм составляет от одного до двух миллионов. Частное предприятие в качестве юридической формы предполагает одного хозяина. Разновидностью этой формы является семейное предприятие, где также всегда можно выделить главного хозяина. Как юридическая форма частное предприятие поистине всеобъемлюще. Оно включает в себя индивидуальные и индивидуально-семейные предприятия, зарегистрированные в качестве фирм, но формально не пользующиеся наемным трудом, но оно включает также и огромные предприятия с десятками тысяч занятых. Вплоть до 50-х годов XX века такие гигантские предприятия, как концерн Форда или Хьюза, были семейными. Также семейными фирмами были нефтяные империи Ханта и Гетти. В наше время форму семейного предприятия сохраняет огромная транснациональная компания "Бегтел".

И всё же, несмотря на отдельные исключения, 99% хозяйских фирм - это мелкие предприятия. Именно этим объясняются юридические особенности этой формы: полная материальная ответственность хозяина-владельца по обязательствам фирмы, распространяемая на его имущество. В таких фирмах все юридические права собственности владение, распоряжение, пользование сосредоточены в одних руках. Для хозяйской фирмы характерны лёгкость регистрации при ее формировании и роспуске, гарантия коммерческой тайны, единая и достаточно простая финансовая отчетность, в основном связанная с налоговой декларацией.



Notes:
частное предприятие – private enterprise

юридические права – legal rights

права собственности – rights of ownership

семейное предприятие – family-owned enterprise

отчетность – accountability



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